Electric Power Basics



That is the word commonly used in every day language to refer to electricity. But what is really the electrical power?

To describe the meaning of electrical power, we need to dig into our knowledge of mechanical physics. In physics, power is the ratio at which energy is consumed or, in other words, is the number representing the energy used divided by the time needed to actually consume it.

Another way to say it is in terms of work. The energy consumed is, in fact, the work done on the system, so we can say that the power is the work done on the system in a certain amount of time.

In mechanical physics, the power is measured in Joules/Second, and the unit for it is called Watt, in honor of James Watt, a Scottish inventor, engineer and chemist of the 18th century that did a lot of work on the subjects of energy and power in mechanical systems.


Now that we have refreshed our knowledge on the concept of power, let’s see if we can find an equivalent way of defining it in the realm of electricity.

In terms of electricity, we need to consider the energy used to move the electrical charges, which is still a work, and it is done by the generator that powers the electrical circuit.

We know already how to measure the electric potential energy in electrical circuits: that is done by the voltage, which provides the energy per unit of charge:


From the voltage we can derive the energy itself:


Now we have our energy consumed in the system to move the charges around. The electrical power is that energy divided by the time spent to use that energy:


Very interesting result, isn’t it? To calculate the electrical power we just need to multiply the voltage used to power the circuit by the current that flows into it. And, again, this power is measured in Watts, so the product of Volt and Ampere gives us the amount of watts used by the circuit.

Now that we have the formula for the power, it is easy to figure out how much power a generator provides when connected to a circuit. We just multiply the voltage of the generator by the current that is flowing through it.

And the power consumed by a load is the product of the voltage applied to the load and the current that flows through it.

Is the power provided by a generator the same as the one consumed by a load?

Well, in both cases we can measure it in Watts. However, in the first case the power goes out of the generator, while in the second case the power goes in to the load. We just need to establish a rule to make sure we can distinguish the direction in which the power flows.

We say that the power is negative when it goes out of a device and it is positive when it goes in.

So, in an electrical circuit with a generator and a load, the power is negative at the generator and is positive at the load. But the absolute amount in both cases is the same, and the sum of the two powers is therefore zero.

In fact, we have just verified the physics law of conservation of energy: in a closed system (the electric circuit), the total amount of energy never changes. The amount of energy produced by the generator equals the amount of energy absorbed by the load and, therefore, in any time interval (thus the power), the total is zero and never changes.

To conclude, we have talked about the electrical power. We have compared the way the power is calculated in mechanical systems with the way the power is calculated in electrical systems.

We have stated the rule to provide a sign to the power, and we have verified that this rule satisfies the law of the conservation of energy.

These concepts are general enough to apply to both DC and AC circuits. However, I will come back on these concepts in a future article to see how calculations are affected by loads having different electrical properties.

In the mean time, you can get some more information by watching the companion video on the Electrical Power that I recently published on my YouTube channel.

And, as always…

Happy Experiments!


Let’s Talk About Voltage

What is voltage? Where the name comes from? How it makes electric current flow?


Voltage is a very common word in the context of electrical and electronics engineering. However, common as it is, it is a concept that is often not fully understood.

How many people know that voltage is a concept related with potential energy? The same kind of energy that is so often used in mechanical physics!

When we talked about electrical current in the previous post, we said that current moves from a higher electrical potential energy to a lower one. We also defined the current as the flow of positive charges moving from the positive electrical potential energy to the negative one.


In order for the charges to move, there has to be a force that puts them in motion in a specific direction. Such force will have to do some sort of work on the charges and the work done by the force can be translated in a change in energy of the charges.

We define Electromotive Force the ratio between the energy change of the charges and the amount of charges. This can be represented with the following formula:


Note that, despite the name, the Electromotive Force is not a force in the mechanical sense. Instead it is a potential energy per unit of charge, which we also call electric potential, or just potential.

The unit for the emf is called Volt, and is the ratio between one unit of energy, or 1 Joule, and one unit of charge, or 1 Coulomb:


And that’s where the name voltage comes from: it is a name derived from the measurement unit of the electric potential. Although the correct name is electric potential, to make things easier in the day to day talk, we just call it voltage.

So, again, what is voltage? The voltage is the difference of electrical potential energy that allows a unit of charge to move and produce a current.

Now, do you think it is correct to say that when there is voltage we have a current? Do the two things always go together? Well, the answer is no. You can actually have one without the other.

An example of voltage without a current is the battery. If you don’t connect the battery to a circuit, there is no current involved!


And what about the current? This example is definitively less intuitive. So, let’s just say for now that if we force a current in a ring of a special material called superconductor and then we remove the cause that generated the current, the current keeps flowing in the superconductor, even in the absence of a voltage. Maybe we can explore this concept a little more in a future post, if I see there is an interest for it. Translation: let me know what you think! Comments are always welcome!


Let’s now go back to the battery. The battery provides a voltage between its positive and negative poles. With that, if we connect the battery to an electric load, current starts to flow immediately and the higher the voltage the greater the amount of current (more on that in a future post).

current_with battery

Like the current, there are two forms of voltage:

  1. The DC voltage

  2. The AC voltage

The DC voltage is the one typically provided by batteries. It is a voltage of a fixed value and of fixed polarity. The plus and minus on the electrodes of the battery never change. One electrode will always be the positive one, and the other electrode will be the negative one.


When we connect a battery to an electric circuit, we have a flow of DC current.

The AC voltage is the one created for example in the power plants and provided at the wall outlets in your house.



The voltage at the outlet is not constant as the one in the batteries. Instead, it changes continuously following the shape of a sine wave. Because of that, the polarity at each electrode of the outlet changes over time from positive to negative and vice versa, following the shape of the sine wave.


When we connect a device to the electric outlet, the current that will flow through that device will be an AC current as well.

The sinusoidal shape of the AC voltage depends on the way the electricity is generated. In the power plants there are devices called alternators, a much bigger version of those that you can find inside your car to recharge the battery, or on a bike, to provide electricity to turn on the lights at night.

Depending on the power plant, a different kind of energy is used to put in motion the alternator. It could be fossil fuel or nuclear energy that heat a reservoir of water and create the steam that makes the alternator rotate.


Or it could be the rotation of a propeller-like device that is put in motion by the wind.


Whatever the source is of the mechanical energy, the alternator converts that energy in electrical energy. But, since the rotation translates into a sine wave when described on a Cartesian reference system, the resulting electrical energy acquires that shape too.

DC and AC are both necessary to us to power devices that make our lives easier. Some devices need to be powered with DC, others need the AC.

DC voltage is necessary, for example, to power electronic devices: your smartphone or radio or computer, for example.

AC voltage is used to transmit the electrical energy from the places where it is created to the places where it is used. When AC reaches our home, it can be used as is to power electric motors like those in the refrigerator or the washing machine, or other household appliance. Or it can be converted to DC to power other devices, like your TV set.


  1. To generate a current, we need to provide some energy to the charges in the conductor.

  2. The potential energy per unit of charge is called emf, or electromotive force. That measures the capability of the generator (a battery, for example) of generating a current.

  3. Most used synonyms of the emf are: voltage, difference of potential, and potential. Somebody also uses the name “tension”.

  4. The measurement unit of the potential is the Volt, which is the potential energy of 1 Joule per unit of charge, or 1 Coulomb.

  5. The Volt is a differential measure, not an absolute one. You always measure Volts with respect to a point that we arbitrarily define as 0V, or ground.

  6. Emf can be DC or AC and, correspondingly, it can generate a DC or an AC current when connected to an electrical circuit.

  7. DC voltage is normally generated through chemical reactions in a battery, or can be obtained from the AC through a process called “rectification”.

  8. AC voltage is normally generated with alternators like those used in power plants.

If you want to know more on this topic, I suggest you to watch the companion video of this article, which I posted on my YouTube channel:


Thank you for reading this article and, as always,

Happy Experiments!

Electric Current The Easy Way

Electric Current The Easy Way: a very simple and qualitative approach to understanding what electric current is and how it flows.

Watching a number of YouTube videos, I realized there is some misconception regarding the electric current and how it flows. Some people don’t understand what the current is made of and whether it flows from positive to negative or vice versa.

So here I am, trying to shedding some light to clear the obscurity on this subject.

This post approaches the subject in a very basic qualitative way. No formulas and no calculations are involved.

Here it is!

From the Webster Dictionary

A flowing or passing; onward motion. Hence: A body of
fluid moving continuously in a certain direction; a
stream; esp., the swiftest part of it; as, a current of
water or of air; that which resembles a stream in motion;
as, a current of electricity.

So, current is the flow of something, some kind of material thing like the molecules of water in a river.

fresh river_400

But, what is the material that makes the electric current?

Electric current is made of electric charges. These charges have the ability of moving in a medium like, for example, an electric wire. Like the water in a river, charges have to move from a higher level to a lower level of potential energy.


For a river, the higher level of potential energy is the higher ground, and so the water flows from a higher ground to a lower ground, from a mountain or a hill toward the valley below or the sea, or the ocean.

Similarly, for an electric current, charges have to move from a higher ground of electric potential energy to a lower ground.

The problem with the electric current is that different kind of charges can make it, depending on the medium, and depending on the kind of charges. So, the definition of higher ground may change.

This seems utterly complicated, and it is. Think if we had to consider the kind of medium and/or the kind of charge every time we need to describe what happens with a current.

So, since we don’t like complications, we make some simplification. We always define a higher ground as a positive electric potential energy level, and we always say that the current flows from the positive potential energy level to the negative.


Hum… Positive? Negative?

Well, yes, because charges can only be positive or negative. Think at the electrons and the protons in the atoms. Those are the basic charges and they are negative for the electrons and positive for the protons.


Wait, what we just said? Electrons are charged negatively and protons positively? How do we know that?

We don’t!

Positive and negative are just made up names that we use because it is convenient to do so.

We could have as well said that electrons are positively charged and protons are negatively charged. But, historically, we have defined the polarity of the charges in a certain way and therefore we continue to do so, because we don’t like changes, and we like concepts to be simple.

So, here we are, saying that an electric current is made of charges. That the charges can be positive or negative. That positive charges like to go from their kind of higher ground, a positive electric potential level, to a lower ground, which is a lower positive electric potential level that we call negative, to distinguish from the other one. And, finally, we say that negative charges like to go from their kind of higher ground, the negative electric potential level, to their kind of lower ground, which now we understand we can call positive electric potential level.

Hum, it seems too much, isn’t it?

And yes, it is: too complicated to use it in every day conversations.

Simplification? Sure, let’s do that. Let’s say that whenever an electric current is involved, we will always say that it is made up of positive charges, and that positive charges always go from positive to negative electric potential level. How’s that? Simple enough?

Now doesn’t matter the medium being an electric wire, were the current is made up of electrons moving through it, or the acid solution in a car battery, where the electric current is made of ions, of both positive and negative kinds, creating two different currents flowing simultaneously in opposite directions.



Lesson learned: we like to make things simple. We define the electric current as the flow of positive electric charges in a medium, whatever it is, going from the positive potential level to the negative.


And that’s it. That’s enough for us. With this definition we can address problems involving electric currents always the same way, without worrying what is really happening behind the scenes. This is a very important concept. All about electrical engineering is based on this definition of current. Well… at least part of it.

Capacitors – Part 1

A brief introduction to capacitors: what they are, how they are made, and their basic functionality.

capacitorsA capacitor is an electric device capable of storing energy in the form of electric charges (electric field).

In the most simple form, a capacitor is made of two conductive plates facing each other and an insulator in between, which is normally called a dielectric. The two plates are then attached to wires, that are used to connect the capacitor in an electric circuit.


The schematic diagram reflects exactly the physical nature of the device:


When a capacitor is connected to a power supply, like a battery, electrons leave the plate that is connected to the positive side of the battery, while the same amount of electrons is pushed into the plate connected to the negative side of the battery. Once the difference of charges at the plates of the capacitor is enough to establish a voltage on the capacitor that is identical to the battery, electrons stop moving around the circuit and an equilibrium is reached.


At this point, if the connection with the battery is severed, the capacitor will retain the amount of charges on its plates: extra charges on the negative plate and defect of charges on the positive plate. If we connect a load to the capacitor, for example a resistor, charges will start moving in the circuit pushed by the voltage at the wires, called electrodes, of the capacitor. So, electrons will leave the negative plate moving toward the load, and an equal amount of electrons will move from the load into the positive plate of the capacitor. The movement of the electrons causes the voltage at the plates of the capacitor to lower until, when an equilibrium of charged is reached, the voltage will be zero and the current will stop flowing through the circuit. At this point all the energy that was stored in the capacitor has been used and the capacitor is said to be discharged.


Both during charge and discharge, the ratio between the amount of charge stored on the capacitor and its voltage remains constant. This can be verified experimentally. We define this constant as the capacitance of the capacitor:

C = Q / V

which is measured in Farad. However, since the Farad is a very big unit, capacitors are normally measured in fractions of Farad, like microFarad (μF, 1 millionth of a Farad)), nanoFarad (nF, one billionth of a Farad), and picoFarad (pF, one trillionth of Farad).

Using the above formula, and calculating the work done to move the charges in and out of the capacitor with the help of some calculus, we can determine the energy stored in a capacitor as:


And, finally, the actual capacitance can also be determined by the physical parameters of the capacitor itself. We can see experimentally that the capacitance is directly proportional to the area of the plates of the capacitor, it is inversely proportional to the distance between the plates, and depends on the type of dielectric in between the plates. The type of dielectric is identified in the formula by the Greek letter ε (epsilon). Each type of dielectric has its own value of ε (permittivity), which is the product of the vacuum permittivity and the relative permittivity of the material.


For more information on this subject, please look also to the corresponding video on my YouTube channel.