DC Electronic Loads

An electronic load to test DC power supply devices up to 100W.

What do you use when you have to test a new power supply that you just built, or one that you bought and want to know if the declared specs are true?

One thing you’ll need is a passive load that you attach to the power supply output to drain a certain amount of current, both to verify that the power supply is capable of providing that amount of current, and to verify the amount of ripple that was not filtered away by the power supply itself.

rheostatA classic method for doing so is to use a rheostat, which is essentially a potentiometer capable of dissipating the amount of power produced by the power supply. The resistance of the rheostat can be changed and therefore different amount of currents can be used to test the power supply. However, rheostats are big, heavy and cumbersome.

An alternative to rheostats is to have a so-called Electronic Load. These are electronic circuits that are capable to emulate the functionality of a rheostat.

I’m proposing here two simple versions of an Electronic Load, functioning in DC, and capable of dissipating up to 100W, all of this in a very condensed space, and very light in weight.

The first version is a very simplistic one.

100W_el_load_v1

It uses a cascade of three transistors, in a configuration called Darlington. This configuration is effectively equivalent to a single transistor with a gain (hfe) that is the product of the gain of all the transistors in the configuration. This allows for a very little control current flowing into the potentiometer used to regulate the base current, and for a high current available between the collector and the emitter of the transistor Q3, in the above schematics.

This circuit does not need its own power supply, since it gets what it needs directly from the power supply under test. The resistor R1 is calculated based on the highest voltage that the circuit will be able to handle, in this case 50V. It is important to note, however, that using this load at lower voltages will prevent the possibility to use the full excursion of the potentiometer, thus limiting the sensitivity of the circuit for the control of the current.

The next circuit eliminates the sensitivity problem by providing it own power supply to control the base current of the Darlington, thus eliminating the dependency from the external power supply voltage.

100W_el_load_v2

In fact, in this case, the base current can be adjusted with the potentiometer RV1, which is polarized through the resistor R1 and the trimpot TR1, which can be adjusted to maximize the useful range of motion of the potentiometer, regardless of the voltage applied at the input terminals. This way the electronic load can have the same sensitivity for any input voltage. A digital Volt/Am-meter, powered by the same internal battery, provides a visualization of the voltage of the system under test and the current being drained from it.

I will soon publish a video on my YouTube channel that shows the Electronic Load I built for myself. Please watch for that video to come out. And, in the mean time, can you think which one of the above schematics I used? Did I use the simple one, because less expensive? O did I sacrifice a few extra bucks to gain more sensitivity on the regulation of the load?

I strongly suggest to subscribe for free to my YouTube channel, and also to click on the bell icon that appears after the subscription is done. This will allow you to automatically receive an e-mail whenever I publish a new video. This way you won’t have to go periodically to my channel to check for new posts.

Happy Experiments!

Capacitors – Part 1

A brief introduction to capacitors: what they are, how they are made, and their basic functionality.

capacitorsA capacitor is an electric device capable of storing energy in the form of electric charges (electric field).

In the most simple form, a capacitor is made of two conductive plates facing each other and an insulator in between, which is normally called a dielectric. The two plates are then attached to wires, that are used to connect the capacitor in an electric circuit.

capacitor

The schematic diagram reflects exactly the physical nature of the device:

schematic_symbol

When a capacitor is connected to a power supply, like a battery, electrons leave the plate that is connected to the positive side of the battery, while the same amount of electrons is pushed into the plate connected to the negative side of the battery. Once the difference of charges at the plates of the capacitor is enough to establish a voltage on the capacitor that is identical to the battery, electrons stop moving around the circuit and an equilibrium is reached.

capacitor_and_battery

At this point, if the connection with the battery is severed, the capacitor will retain the amount of charges on its plates: extra charges on the negative plate and defect of charges on the positive plate. If we connect a load to the capacitor, for example a resistor, charges will start moving in the circuit pushed by the voltage at the wires, called electrodes, of the capacitor. So, electrons will leave the negative plate moving toward the load, and an equal amount of electrons will move from the load into the positive plate of the capacitor. The movement of the electrons causes the voltage at the plates of the capacitor to lower until, when an equilibrium of charged is reached, the voltage will be zero and the current will stop flowing through the circuit. At this point all the energy that was stored in the capacitor has been used and the capacitor is said to be discharged.

capacitor_and_load

Both during charge and discharge, the ratio between the amount of charge stored on the capacitor and its voltage remains constant. This can be verified experimentally. We define this constant as the capacitance of the capacitor:

C = Q / V

which is measured in Farad. However, since the Farad is a very big unit, capacitors are normally measured in fractions of Farad, like microFarad (μF, 1 millionth of a Farad)), nanoFarad (nF, one billionth of a Farad), and picoFarad (pF, one trillionth of Farad).

Using the above formula, and calculating the work done to move the charges in and out of the capacitor with the help of some calculus, we can determine the energy stored in a capacitor as:

energy

And, finally, the actual capacitance can also be determined by the physical parameters of the capacitor itself. We can see experimentally that the capacitance is directly proportional to the area of the plates of the capacitor, it is inversely proportional to the distance between the plates, and depends on the type of dielectric in between the plates. The type of dielectric is identified in the formula by the Greek letter ε (epsilon). Each type of dielectric has its own value of ε (permittivity), which is the product of the vacuum permittivity and the relative permittivity of the material.

capacitance

For more information on this subject, please look also to the corresponding video on my YouTube channel.

Looking At The Future

An overview of the next subjects I will explore in my blog and my YouTube channel.

spatiul-cosmic

No, not the future of the human race! Not even the future of the space exploration!

I’m just talking about my plans for future posts on this blog and on my YouTube channel.

I observed that people tend to look mostly at short videos and, when they are too long, watchers soon give up. I attribute this to the fact that people watches YouTube videos in a different way than TV shows and, while TV shows may be long, that is not true for the majority of videos on YouTube. The expectations are just different.

So, rather than proposing long videos that exhaust a subject in all its details, and just gliding over it, it is probably better to have short videos that concentrate on a single detail of the subject. Then I could have several episodes on the same subject, each concentrating on a different detail and made in such a way that someone could watch a specific episode without the need to watch all the previous ones..

Looking back at the resistors video, it could have probably worked better if I had split the video in several pieces, one with the general information, one just for resistors in series, one for resistors in parallel, and so forth.

I could basically have several episodes on different aspects of the same subject!

Based on this assumption, I will publish in the next few weeks several episodes centered on two primary subjects: the capacitor and the inductor, to complete the overview of all the passive components used in electronics. And, maybe, in a later future, I could also provide a number of videos where I show how these components can be used together, and what kind of circuits can be created.

Please let me know what you think of this new setup of my channel by writing a comment. Should I just keep going the way I started? Or should I move on with shorter videos, centered on specific details of a subject? Would this help those people that are only interested in specific details and don’t want to listen to the whole spiel?

Before I go, I would like to finish by introducing a new subject that is very dear to me: I plan to build a functioning Theremin for myself (I play musical instruments as a hobby). It is going to be a complex project, so it wll take some time, but I plan to upload several videos on the progresses I make, until the project is completed. I will also publish the whole design of the instrument, so brave followers can try to build one for themselves too. And, maybe, I could also upload my own performance with the instrument, once completed, playing just some simple tune. Anyone interested?

theremin_in_concert

‘Till the next time…

(Watch also the video on YouTube:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jXCCT2xIWcA&feature=share)

How Resistors Work

resistors_series

What is a resistor? Why would I want to use it? Where can I find it?

I’m sure you have asked these questions and many others to yourself several times. Here, I hope to give you at least some of the answers. But keep in mind that there is much more behind this and I could keep writing pages and pages on the subject barely scratching the surface of it.

So, why am I doing this? Because, for the most part, the information I will provide here are enough for day to day use of the resistors in simple electronic circuits used to for learning and for early experimentation. If you need to know more, then you are already on the road for becoming a true electric or electronic engineer.

A resistor is an electric device which only reason to exist is to reduce the flow of the current in a circuit. It obtains this effect by dissipating the extra energy of the current into heat. Yes, heat! There was never in the engineering history a device that wasted more energy than a resistor (percent wise). But then you’d ask: why in the world we want to use it? Because, used in the appropriate way, it allows us to do a lot of things that wouldn’t otherwise be possible. Just think at this: there is no electronic circuit in the world that does not use resistors.

Here is how resistors look like:

resistors

Back in 1827, a German physicist and mathematician named Georg Ohm, published a paper containing what it was later called Ohm’s law. It was basically a formula that correlated the current that flows in a wire with the voltage applied at its extremities. He found that increasing the voltage, the current also increased of a proportional amount, and he called the proportional constant “resistance”. The formula of the resistance was born (although he did not write it exactly this way):

V = I x R

A resistor, therefore, is fundamentally a piece of conductor that presents a certain resistance to the flow of the current. When we apply a voltage V at the ends of the conductor, an electric current I will flow, proportional to the amount of voltage by the constant R, the resistance of the conductor. In the SI system, the resistance is measured in Ohms, to honor the discoverer of the law, while the voltage is measured in Volts and the current in Amperes.

Today, resistors are made of different materials. These materials are substantially a mix of a good conductor and an insulator (a material that blocks the flow of current). Adjusting the mix of the two substances, it is possible to create resistors having a wide range of possible resistances, from tens to millions of an ohm.

There are two symbols that are normally used in schematics to represent a resistor. The most common in USA is the one with a zig-zag shape; the other is the one specified by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission):

resistor_notation

Let’s now talk about how resistors can be connected to each other to accomplish some simple tasks.

The first way to connect together two or more resistors is to put them in series. Two or more resistors are said to be connected in series if the same current I flows through all of them:

resistors_series

The voltage E applied to the whole circuit is split among all the resistors and the sum of all the resistor voltages equals the voltage E:

E = V1 + V2 + V3

while the total current in the circuit is:

I = V1/R1 = V2/R2 = V3/R3 = E/Req

Req is the equivalent resistance of the series:

Req = R1 + R2 + R3

resistor_equivalent

A series of resistors is normally used as a voltage divider like, for example, those that are used to polarize transistors, or other electronic components. Another usage example is to reduce the input voltage coming into a device, to bring it to a value more consistent to what the device needs. An example of that is the input of an amplifier that accepts a voltage no greater than 1V as its input. If the source of the signal that goes into the amplifier has a greater voltage, a couple of resistors in series can do the trick of lowering the voltage to a more adequate value.

Another way to connect resistors is to put them in parallel. Two or more resistors are said to be connected in parallel if the same voltage E is applied to all of them:

resistors_parallel.png

The current I that flows from the generator is split among the different resistors and the sum of all the resistor currents equal the current from the generator:

I = I1 + I2 + I3

The voltage in the circuit can be expressed by the following equation:

E = R1 * I1 + R2 * I2 + R3 * I3 = Req * I

Req is the equivalent resistance of the parallel:

1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

resistir_parall_equiv

Resistors in parallel have several uses, but the first two that come to my mind as the most usual are:

  1. You need a resistor of a particular value that is not available in the market. To solve the problem, you build the resistor with the value you need by putting in parallel two or more resistors of higher value, such that the Req equals the value of resistance that you need.
  2. You can view at all the devises and lamp that you plug in your house receptacles as resistors. All of them are connected in parallel, so each one of them can receive the same voltage regardless of how much current they need.

And, since we were talking about lamps, let’s also talk about power. We have said that the main function of a resistor is to restrict the flow of current by converting the excess power into heat. However, while we do so, we also need to avoid that a resistor becomes too hot, thus damaging its surroundings on the circuit board and maybe even catching on fire.

For this reason, each resistor has a power rating. The power rating the is the max amount of power that the resistor can dissipate without becoming hot enough to cause damage to itself or its surroundings. Normal ratings for resistors that are used in electronic circuit are 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, and 1 W

W is the symbol used in electrical engineering to identify the unit to measure the power, which is called Watt. And yes, that is the same power unit used for mechanics and for thermodynamics, if you were wondering.

The power dissipated by a resistor depends on the voltage applied to the resistor and the current that goes through it:

P = V * I = R * I2= V2 / R

When designing a circuit, you always have to make sure that you determine the max power that each resistor will dissipate, so you can specify the power rating of the resistors along with their value in Ohms.

Another thing that is worth mentioning is that resistors have also a voltage rating. However, even resistors with very low power rating, like 1/8W, have voltage ratings of at least 200V. Will you ever build an electronic circuit that is powered with such amounts of voltage? Probably not, that’s why you don’t usually have to worry about that. And, in fact, how many times have you heard somebody talking about voltage rating of resistors? Maybe never?

One last thing I would like to talk about is how to identify the value of a resistor. Resistors normally  used in electronic circuits are of two kinds:

  • through hole resistors
  • SMT resistors (Surface Mount Technology)

The value of the SMT resistors is always written in clear, with numbers and letters, for example 1k2, which means 1.2 kΩ (that is kilo Ohms).

The value of the “through hole” resistors is instead normally identified by a number of color bands painted on the resistor itself. Each color represents a digit in the value of the resistor, or a multiplier, depending on the position. The last colored band represents the tolerance, which tells you how precise is the value of the resistor itself.

Here is a table that shows you the color codes and the meaning of each color in relation with the position on the body of the resistor.

resistors_color_code

‘Till the next time…

(Watch also the video on YouTube:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jV5nacrzsBw)

Experimentation Boards

How to experiment with electronic components to try new things and test your designs

It comes the time where you want to do some experiments to learn how a specific circuit works or to test a new circuit that you are designing.

Fundamentally, there are two options for you:

  1. Use a perforated board where you can solder the components to build the circuit you want to test.
  2. Use a solder-less breadboard, which allows you to build the circuit you need and, later, dismantle it without any damage to the components you used.

There is actually a third possibility, which is to use a PCB, or Printed Circuit Board. However, I will not consider that right now. PCB are normally used in later stage of development, when you are ready to put your design in a more definitive form. Using a PCB board at the early stages of design is not convenient, due to the cost and time needed just to produce the board itself over and over again, until you are satisfied with your design.

Personally, when I am in the first stages of a new design, and I need to try  a new piece of electronic circuit, I prefer to use a solder-less breadboard, which allows me to modify the circuit at will while I test different versions of it.

02_DSC00020

Once I am satisfied with the design and I need to build my first real prototype, I then use a perforated board. In this case I lay down all the components on one side of it, normally the one with no metallic pads, and then I solder the components on the other side, where the metallic pads are located. At the same time I start running the cables from the lead of one component to another, to make all the electric connections between components.

02_DSC00027

If what I need is just one circuit for personal purposes, then I might as well end it right there, leaving the circuit on the perforated board. But if I needed to build several of those circuits, then I start thinking of manufacturing a PCB. But this is a subject for another time.

Since I work a lot with Arduino and Raspberry Pi boards, I have also created my own version of experimentation board, which is basically a piece of cardboard that I covered with blue tape, with  a bunch of stuff glued to it: a couple of breadboards, an Arduino Uno, a Raspberry Pi, and a small LCD display. I also added a few little trays to temporarily place some components needed to build the circuit, or to hold bigger components that are part of the project and cannot fit on the breadboards.

02_DSC00023

This configuration allows me to build my experimentation circuits in a neat way, without having too many things lying around on the workbench. It is very easy to move around the built circuit when it is done on such a custom board.

(Watch the video on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wv7kVVZvULA&t=13s)