DC Electronic Load V.3

Back in August 2018, I presented a DC electronic load on my YouTube channel (V.2). For that, I used an old 2N3055 transistor in a Darlington configuration with 2 more transistors to be able to get enough gain to use it.

100W_el_load_v2

Although declared useful for 100W, I was never able to make it work at those powers due to the limited dissipation capabilities of the power transistor and the heat sink. The max power dissipation I could have from that device was about 20W.

Today, at the anniversary of that presentation, I have created a new version of of the DC electronic load. This new version is based on a MOSFET that can work alone as a load, adjusting the current only through an appropriate voltage on its gate, avoiding the need of having a Darlington circuit with multiple transistors.

The schematic of this new version of the DC electronic load is based on a single MOSFET capable of driving the necessary current, up to 5A and a voltage divider connected to the battery, providing the appropriate voltage to the gate of the MOSFET.

electronic_load-v.3

In order to make it work correctly, the trim-pot RV1 needs to be tuned to obtain a voltage of 1.5V on pin 3 of the potentiometer that regulates the amount of current flowing through the MOSFET, which provides a better use of the multi-turn potentiometer that regulates the actual value of the current.

A combination of digital voltmeter and am-meter, like in the previous version of the DC load, takes care of providing information about the power supply under test.

The device is powered through a 9V battery and it is connected in such a way that the voltage is measured through the yellow wire of the digital voltmeter, wile the current is measured putting the am-meter in series with the MOSFET, with the thick red wire on the source, and the thick black wire toward the negative connector, through a 5A fuse that is used, mostly, to protect the am-meter itself against currents too high of those it can handle.

I made a new case for this new version of the DC load. The main difference is the location of the heat-sink, which is now located on the back panel rather than the top of the device. The new heat-sink is also attached to the back panel through 4 separators, which allow for a better air flow and cooling of the unit when it is used for long period of times.

Here is an OpenSCAD view of the box and the corresponding code to create it.

v3_box_view

$fa=0.5;
$fs=0.5;

//main section
rotate([180, 0, 0]) translate([0, 10, -2])
{
// front panel
difference()
{
cube([150, 80, 2]);
translate([27.5, 40, -1]) cube([45.8, 27.7, 4]);
translate([52, 20, -1]) cylinder(d=6.2, h=4);
translate([120, 60 , -1]) cylinder(d=9, h=4);
translate([108, 20 , -1]) cylinder(d=9, h=4);
translate([132, 20 , -1]) cylinder(d=9, h=4);
translate([3,3,0.5]) linear_extrude(height=2) text(“eleneasy.com – DC load – 25W max.”, size = 6);
translate([36,18,0.5]) linear_extrude(height=2) text(“off”, size=5);
translate([61,18,0.5]) linear_extrude(height=2) text(“on”, size=5);
translate([109,44,0.5]) linear_extrude(height=2) text(“current”, size=5);
}
translate([102.25, 15, 0]) cube([2, 10, 2]);
translate([126.25, 15, 0]) cube([2, 10, 2]);
translate([111.75, 15, 0]) cube([2, 10, 2]);
translate([135.75, 15, 0]) cube([2, 10, 2]);
translate([12, 20, -36]) cube([27, 2, 35]);
translate([39, 4, -36]) cube([2, 18, 35]);

// left panel
translate([0, 0, -60]) cube([2, 80, 60]);

// right panel
translate([148, 0, -60]) cube([2, 80, 60]);

// bottom panel
translate([0, 0, -60]) cube([150, 2, 60]);

// top panel
translate([0, 78, -60])
{
cube([150, 2, 60]);
}

// screws supports
translate([2, 2, -58]) difference()
{
cube([10, 10, 58]);
translate([5, 5, -1]) cylinder(d=2, h=16);
}
translate([138, 2, -58]) difference()
{
cube([10, 10, 58]);
translate([5, 5, -1]) cylinder(d=2, h=16);
}
translate([2, 68, -58]) difference()
{
cube([10, 10, 58]);
translate([5, 5, -1]) cylinder(d=2, h=16);
}
translate([138, 68, -58]) difference()
{
cube([10, 10, 58]);
translate([5, 5, -1]) cylinder(d=2, h=16);
}
}

// back cover
translate([0, 10, 0]) difference()
{
cube([146, 76, 2]);
translate([5, 5, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([5, 71, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([141, 5, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([141, 71, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([73, 38, -1]) cylinder(d=40, h=4);
translate([126, 60, -1]) cylinder(d=12.5, h=4);
translate([130.5,51,0.5]) rotate([0, 0, 180]) linear_extrude(height=2) text(“5A”, size=5);
translate([(146-55)/2, (76-50)/2, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([146-(146-55)/2, (76-50)/2, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([146-(146-55)/2, 76-(76-50)/2, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
translate([(146-55)/2, 76-(76-50)/2, -1]) cylinder(d=4, h=4);
}

Assembling the circuit is pretty straightforward, and it is done partially in the air and partially  on a perforated board.

We just need to make sure we provide the cables with the right thickness for the current we need to support.

In my case, I used stranded cables with an 18 gauge. These cables are necessary between the thick am-meter cables, the MOSFET source and drain, and the external connectors.

Every other connection can be made with 22 gauge cables.

And finally, the heat-sink should have a resistance of 0.82 Centigrade degrees per watt or less, to prevent the MOSFET from becoming too hot. Note that this will not save the MOSFET in case you draw a current too high. The product between the current and the voltage as provided by the measurements display must never exceed 25W, and the current should never exceed 5A, or the MOSFET will burn.

The tuning is done by measuring the voltage between the terminal 3 of the potentiometer and the ground, with the circuit on, but not connected to any external power supply. The trim-pot has to be adjusted such that the measured voltage equals 1.5V, which is just below the minimum voltage necessary to make the MOSFET conduct current. This way, when turning on the apparatus with the potentiometer all the way to the counter-clockwise position, there will be no current. Then, moving the potentiometer in the clockwise direction, current will start flowing.

Testing of the unit is done attaching it to a power supply that provides different test voltages while we adjust the current with the multi-turn potentiometer on the DC load unit. Just make sure not to exceed 25W of power at any given time. Doing so could damage the MOSFET itself.

I plan to use this DC load in all my future projects that require a power supply of 25W or less, to test the power supply itself. Besides checking that the power supply works fine, you could also check that the ripple of the output voltage does not exceeds your requirements. That can be done connecting the power supply output to an oscilloscope while the DC load draws the current.

And finally, here are a couple of picture of the finished device.

20190816_112540.jpg

20190816_112614

Happy experiments!

 

Another Theremin Post

Announcing the new video on the design, implementation and testing of the power supply module of the Theremin.

You can find the video at this link.

Also, refer to the link on the right column about the Theremin project to find all the files so far published on the construction of this unusual electronic musical instrument (schematics, 3D designs, work art).

And, finally, don’t forget to look also at the other videos on my YouTube channel.

 

DC Electronic Loads

An electronic load to test DC power supply devices up to 100W.

What do you use when you have to test a new power supply that you just built, or one that you bought and want to know if the declared specs are true?

One thing you’ll need is a passive load that you attach to the power supply output to drain a certain amount of current, both to verify that the power supply is capable of providing that amount of current, and to verify the amount of ripple that was not filtered away by the power supply itself.

rheostatA classic method for doing so is to use a rheostat, which is essentially a potentiometer capable of dissipating the amount of power produced by the power supply. The resistance of the rheostat can be changed and therefore different amount of currents can be used to test the power supply. However, rheostats are big, heavy and cumbersome.

An alternative to rheostats is to have a so-called Electronic Load. These are electronic circuits that are capable to emulate the functionality of a rheostat.

I’m proposing here two simple versions of an Electronic Load, functioning in DC, and capable of dissipating up to 100W, all of this in a very condensed space, and very light in weight.

The first version is a very simplistic one.

100W_el_load_v1

It uses a cascade of three transistors, in a configuration called Darlington. This configuration is effectively equivalent to a single transistor with a gain (hfe) that is the product of the gain of all the transistors in the configuration. This allows for a very little control current flowing into the potentiometer used to regulate the base current, and for a high current available between the collector and the emitter of the transistor Q3, in the above schematics.

This circuit does not need its own power supply, since it gets what it needs directly from the power supply under test. The resistor R1 is calculated based on the highest voltage that the circuit will be able to handle, in this case 50V. It is important to note, however, that using this load at lower voltages will prevent the possibility to use the full excursion of the potentiometer, thus limiting the sensitivity of the circuit for the control of the current.

The next circuit eliminates the sensitivity problem by providing it own power supply to control the base current of the Darlington, thus eliminating the dependency from the external power supply voltage.

100W_el_load_v2

In fact, in this case, the base current can be adjusted with the potentiometer RV1, which is polarized through the resistor R1 and the trimpot TR1, which can be adjusted to maximize the useful range of motion of the potentiometer, regardless of the voltage applied at the input terminals. This way the electronic load can have the same sensitivity for any input voltage. A digital Volt/Am-meter, powered by the same internal battery, provides a visualization of the voltage of the system under test and the current being drained from it.

I will soon publish a video on my YouTube channel that shows the Electronic Load I built for myself. Please watch for that video to come out. And, in the mean time, can you think which one of the above schematics I used? Did I use the simple one, because less expensive? O did I sacrifice a few extra bucks to gain more sensitivity on the regulation of the load?

I strongly suggest to subscribe for free to my YouTube channel, and also to click on the bell icon that appears after the subscription is done. This will allow you to automatically receive an e-mail whenever I publish a new video. This way you won’t have to go periodically to my channel to check for new posts.

Happy Experiments!