## Capacitors – Part 1

A brief introduction to capacitors: what they are, how they are made, and their basic functionality.

A capacitor is an electric device capable of storing energy in the form of electric charges (electric field).

In the most simple form, a capacitor is made of two conductive plates facing each other and an insulator in between, which is normally called a dielectric. The two plates are then attached to wires, that are used to connect the capacitor in an electric circuit.

The schematic diagram reflects exactly the physical nature of the device:

When a capacitor is connected to a power supply, like a battery, electrons leave the plate that is connected to the positive side of the battery, while the same amount of electrons is pushed into the plate connected to the negative side of the battery. Once the difference of charges at the plates of the capacitor is enough to establish a voltage on the capacitor that is identical to the battery, electrons stop moving around the circuit and an equilibrium is reached.

At this point, if the connection with the battery is severed, the capacitor will retain the amount of charges on its plates: extra charges on the negative plate and defect of charges on the positive plate. If we connect a load to the capacitor, for example a resistor, charges will start moving in the circuit pushed by the voltage at the wires, called electrodes, of the capacitor. So, electrons will leave the negative plate moving toward the load, and an equal amount of electrons will move from the load into the positive plate of the capacitor. The movement of the electrons causes the voltage at the plates of the capacitor to lower until, when an equilibrium of charged is reached, the voltage will be zero and the current will stop flowing through the circuit. At this point all the energy that was stored in the capacitor has been used and the capacitor is said to be discharged.

Both during charge and discharge, the ratio between the amount of charge stored on the capacitor and its voltage remains constant. This can be verified experimentally. We define this constant as the capacitance of the capacitor:

## C = Q / V

Using the above formula, and calculating the work done to move the charges in and out of the capacitor with the help of some calculus, we can determine the energy stored in a capacitor as:

And, finally, the actual capacitance can also be determined by the physical parameters of the capacitor itself. We can see experimentally that the capacitance is directly proportional to the area of the plates of the capacitor, it is inversely proportional to the distance between the plates, and depends on the type of dielectric in between the plates. The type of dielectric is identified in the formula by the Greek letter ε (epsilon). Each type of dielectric has its own value of ε (permittivity), which is the product of the vacuum permittivity and the relative permittivity of the material.

## Looking At The Future

An overview of the next subjects I will explore in my blog and my YouTube channel.

No, not the future of the human race! Not even the future of the space exploration!

I’m just talking about my plans for future posts on this blog and on my YouTube channel.

I observed that people tend to look mostly at short videos and, when they are too long, watchers soon give up. I attribute this to the fact that people watches YouTube videos in a different way than TV shows and, while TV shows may be long, that is not true for the majority of videos on YouTube. The expectations are just different.

So, rather than proposing long videos that exhaust a subject in all its details, and just gliding over it, it is probably better to have short videos that concentrate on a single detail of the subject. Then I could have several episodes on the same subject, each concentrating on a different detail and made in such a way that someone could watch a specific episode without the need to watch all the previous ones..

Looking back at the resistors video, it could have probably worked better if I had split the video in several pieces, one with the general information, one just for resistors in series, one for resistors in parallel, and so forth.

I could basically have several episodes on different aspects of the same subject!

Based on this assumption, I will publish in the next few weeks several episodes centered on two primary subjects: the capacitor and the inductor, to complete the overview of all the passive components used in electronics. And, maybe, in a later future, I could also provide a number of videos where I show how these components can be used together, and what kind of circuits can be created.

Please let me know what you think of this new setup of my channel by writing a comment. Should I just keep going the way I started? Or should I move on with shorter videos, centered on specific details of a subject? Would this help those people that are only interested in specific details and don’t want to listen to the whole spiel?

Before I go, I would like to finish by introducing a new subject that is very dear to me: I plan to build a functioning Theremin for myself (I play musical instruments as a hobby). It is going to be a complex project, so it wll take some time, but I plan to upload several videos on the progresses I make, until the project is completed. I will also publish the whole design of the instrument, so brave followers can try to build one for themselves too. And, maybe, I could also upload my own performance with the instrument, once completed, playing just some simple tune. Anyone interested?

‘Till the next time…