## Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors

Everybody knows that an electric wire, usually made of copper, is a conductor. And everybody knows that all metals are conductors.

Everybody also knows that plastic is a good electrical insulator, as well as other materials such as glass and rubber.

But how about semiconductors? What are they? And how do we really distinguish among conductors, semiconductors and insulators?

To answer all these question we need to look deeper inside the materials.We know that matter is made of atoms, and atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons reside at the center of the atom structure, called the nucleus. Electrons are allocated all around the nucleus, at a long distance from it, relatively to the scale of the nucleus itself.

Electrons have a certain amount of energy, that is always an integral value of a certain amount that is called quantum of energy. Depending on the amount of energy they posses, they are locate closer or farther away from the nucleus. The more energy, the farther they are.

Based on quantum mechanics, which we are not going to talk in details in this context, electrons occupy bands of energy. The farther bands in the atom are the so called Valence Band and Conduction Band.

The valence band contains all those electrons that allow the atoms to stick together and forming molecules by bonding with other atoms of the same or a different substance.

For certain materials, rather than having molecules, the atoms form what is called a crystalline lattice, which is the case we are more interested in this context. It is worth noting that a new theory, highly based on quantum mechanics, is also distinguishing between actual crystalline lattices and material networks. However, for all the scope and purpose of this context, we will make a simplification and name both of them as crystalline lattices.

###### (This picture, courtesy of Wikipedia)

In certain conditions, electrons in the valence band can jump to a higher level of energy, thus moving in what is called the conduction band. In the conduction band, electrons are no more stuck to their own atoms, but can start moving freely in the lattice that makes up the material. When that happens, we can control their movement by applying an electric field by the means, for example, of a battery. The voltage of the battery, applied to the two ends of the same block of material (for example a wire), produces the electric field inside the material and forces the electrons to move toward the positive electrode of the battery while, in the mean time, the negative electrode of the battery provides electrons to the material, to replace those that have entered the positive electrode of the battery.

Don’t think that electrons move very fast when they do that. Electrons, in fact, move very slowly, but it is the huge amount of them that help creating a measurable current.

Then you would ask: but when I turn the switch on, the light comes out of a lamp instantly. If the electrons move slowly, shouldn’t a lamp emit light only after a while?

Well, yes and no. In fact, the lamp does not light up immediately. It takes a certain amount of time to do that. But that time is so small that for us the event happens instantly.

Also, when you turn the switch on, the electrons closest to the positive electrode move into it almost immediately, not because they are fast, but because they are so close to it. At the same time, new electrons are fed to the material from the negative electrode. So, at the end, all the electrons in the wire start moving simultaneously inside of it, causing the current to start flowing immediately.

But I am digressing. Let’s go back to our primary subject.

We have talked about electrons in the valence band and the possibility they have to jump to the conduction band and, thus, helping creating a current if we apply a voltage.

But how much energy do the electrons need to jump to the conduction band?

Here it comes the definition of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

In the materials called conductors, the level of energy that the valence electrons need to jump to the conduction band is basically ‘0’. In fact, valence band and conduction band overlap each other and, therefore, some or all the electrons in the valence band are also, already, in the conduction band. This happens mostly with metals, like copper, iron, aluminum, and so forth. Depending on the particular metal, the conduction and valence bands are more or less overlapped. Those material where there is more overlap are those that conduct electricity better. Those material where there is less overlap, are those that are worst to conduct current, although still conductors.

In the materials called insulators, the gap between the valence band and the conduction band is so high that electrons cannot jump from the valence band to the conduction band, and so they cannot generate an electrical current.
Of course, if we apply a voltage high enough, we can still provide them the energy to make the jump. However, in that case, because of the very high voltage, electrons jump from one band to the other in a disruptive way, causing the material to break. Once that happened, the insulator loose its property and it is no good anymore as such.

Finally, in the materials called semiconductors, the valence band and the conduction band are separated, but close together. It is relatively easy for an electron in the valence band to jump to the conduction band if we only heat a little bit the semiconductor, maybe just with our bare hands. The heat provides enough energy to the electrons to jump to the conduction band. However, not many electrons will do so, unless we keep heating the semiconductor. So, at the end, although capable of conducting some current, semiconductors are not good in doing so. Thus the name of their category.

In this article, we have talked about energy bands in materials, and how materials behave based on the position of the two highest energy band levels.

We have said that conductors are those were valence and conduction bands are partially overlapping.

Conversely, insulators are those that have a high gap in between the valence and the conduction bands.

And finally, semiconductors are those somewhat in between. For them, the valence and conduction bands are separated with a gap, but that gap is small enough to allow, under certain conditions, for the electrons to jump from the valence to the conduction band. That’s why they perform poorly both as conductors and insulators. However, we will see later on how semiconductors can be of great advantage for us, as long as they are treated in a certain way. They are those that allow us to build all the wonders of modern electronics.

## Electric Power Basics

Power.

That is the word commonly used in every day language to refer to electricity. But what is really the electrical power?

To describe the meaning of electrical power, we need to dig into our knowledge of mechanical physics. In physics, power is the ratio at which energy is consumed or, in other words, is the number representing the energy used divided by the time needed to actually consume it.

Another way to say it is in terms of work. The energy consumed is, in fact, the work done on the system, so we can say that the power is the work done on the system in a certain amount of time.

In mechanical physics, the power is measured in Joules/Second, and the unit for it is called Watt, in honor of James Watt, a Scottish inventor, engineer and chemist of the 18th century that did a lot of work on the subjects of energy and power in mechanical systems.

Now that we have refreshed our knowledge on the concept of power, let’s see if we can find an equivalent way of defining it in the realm of electricity.

In terms of electricity, we need to consider the energy used to move the electrical charges, which is still a work, and it is done by the generator that powers the electrical circuit.

We know already how to measure the electric potential energy in electrical circuits: that is done by the voltage, which provides the energy per unit of charge:

From the voltage we can derive the energy itself:

Now we have our energy consumed in the system to move the charges around. The electrical power is that energy divided by the time spent to use that energy:

Very interesting result, isn’t it? To calculate the electrical power we just need to multiply the voltage used to power the circuit by the current that flows into it. And, again, this power is measured in Watts, so the product of Volt and Ampere gives us the amount of watts used by the circuit.

Now that we have the formula for the power, it is easy to figure out how much power a generator provides when connected to a circuit. We just multiply the voltage of the generator by the current that is flowing through it.

And the power consumed by a load is the product of the voltage applied to the load and the current that flows through it.

Is the power provided by a generator the same as the one consumed by a load?

Well, in both cases we can measure it in Watts. However, in the first case the power goes out of the generator, while in the second case the power goes in to the load. We just need to establish a rule to make sure we can distinguish the direction in which the power flows.

We say that the power is negative when it goes out of a device and it is positive when it goes in.

So, in an electrical circuit with a generator and a load, the power is negative at the generator and is positive at the load. But the absolute amount in both cases is the same, and the sum of the two powers is therefore zero.

In fact, we have just verified the physics law of conservation of energy: in a closed system (the electric circuit), the total amount of energy never changes. The amount of energy produced by the generator equals the amount of energy absorbed by the load and, therefore, in any time interval (thus the power), the total is zero and never changes.

To conclude, we have talked about the electrical power. We have compared the way the power is calculated in mechanical systems with the way the power is calculated in electrical systems.

We have stated the rule to provide a sign to the power, and we have verified that this rule satisfies the law of the conservation of energy.

These concepts are general enough to apply to both DC and AC circuits. However, I will come back on these concepts in a future article to see how calculations are affected by loads having different electrical properties.

In the mean time, you can get some more information by watching the companion video on the Electrical Power that I recently published on my YouTube channel.

And, as always…

Happy Experiments!